The traditional manufacturing industry is facing industrial transformation and upgrading, and high-end precision machining occupies an important position because of its high added value and high technical barriers. With the increase in demand for high-precision machining, laser technology is deeply favored by people in the market.
Laser processing technology is divided into 3 levels according to the size:
- The laser processing technology of large-scale materials mainly based on medium and thick plates, the processing accuracy is generally in millimeters or sub-millimeters
- Precision laser processing technology based on thin plates generally has a processing accuracy of ten microns;
- The laser microfabrication technology, which focuses on various thin films with a thickness of less than 100μm, generally has a machining accuracy of less than ten microns or even submicron.
4 types of laser precision machining
Laser precision processing can be divided into four types of applications, namely precision cutting, precision welding, precision drilling and surface treatment.
Under the current technological development and market environment, the application of laser cutting and welding is more popular, and 3C electronics and new energy batteries are currently the most widely used fields.
What is laser precision cutting
Laser precision cutting uses a pulsed laser beam to focus on the surface of the processed object to form a high-energy density spot, which melts or vaporizes the processed material at an instant high temperature.
Features of laser precision cutting:
- The speed is fast, the cut is smooth and flat, generally without subsequent processing;
- The cutting heat affected zone is small, and the plate deformation is small:
- The machining accuracy is high, the repeatability is good, and the surface of the material is not damaged.
The difference between precision laser cutting and high-power laser cutting:
Compared with high-power laser cutting, precision cutting generally uses nanosecond and picosecond lasers according to the processing objects, which can focus on ultra-fine spatial areas, and at the same time has extremely high peak power and extremely short laser pulses. The surrounding materials in the space involved have an impact, thus achieving “super fine” processing.
In mobile phone screen cutting, fingerprint recognition film, LED invisible scribing and other production processes that require high precision, laser precision cutting technology has unparalleled advantages.
What is laser precision welding
Laser precision welding is to radiate a high-intensity laser beam to the working area of the processed product. Through the interaction of the laser and the material, the welded area quickly forms a multi-density concentrated heat source area. The heat can melt the welded area and then cool it. Crystallization forms a solid solder joint or weld.
Features of precision laser welding:
There is no need for electrodes and filler materials, which is non-contact welding.
Can weld high melting point refractory metals or materials of different thicknesses
The use of precision laser welding in the field of new energy:
In the field of new energy batteries, with the promotion of new energy vehicles, the demand for power batteries continues to increase. Laser welding is a standard configuration in the power battery field. It is widely used in the welding of the tabs in the front section, the welding of the bottom cover, top cover, and sealing nails in the middle section, and the battery connecting piece and the negative electrode sealing welding in the rear section. In the 3C field, various types of mobile phone modules, mid-board covers, etc., are inseparable from laser precision welding technology.
Laser precision drilling
Laser precision drilling is to reduce the diameter of the spot to the micron level, so as to obtain high laser power density, and laser drilling can be performed on almost any material.
Features of laser precision drilling:
It can punch holes in materials with high hardness, brittle texture or soft, with small hole diameter, fast processing speed and high efficiency.
The difference between laser drilling in the PCB industry and the traditional:
Laser not only has high processing speed on PCB, but also can realize the drilling of small holes, micro-holes and invisible holes under 2μm that cannot be realized by traditional equipment. On the surface of electronic products, it can also be used to drill holes in mobile phone speakers, microphones and other glass.
Laser surface treatment
Laser surface treatment is the use of high-power density laser beams for surface treatment of metals, which can achieve phase change hardening, surface amorphization, surface alloying, or chemical reactions that vaporize or change the color of the surface material, thereby changing the metal material Surface characteristics
Features of laser surface treatment:
There is no need to use additional materials, only the organization structure of the surface layer of the processed material is changed, the deformation of the processed part is very small, and it is suitable for surface marking and high-precision parts processing.
Laser surface treatment can be divided into two categories according to whether the composition of the substrate is changed
Applications that do not change the composition of the substrate include laser quenching (phase change hardening), laser cleaning, laser shock hardening and laser polarization, etc.
Changes in the composition of the substrate include applications such as laser cladding, laser electroplating, laser alloying, and laser vapor deposition.（https://laser.ofweek.com）