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What Is a Servo Motor Vs Stepper Motor

Servo motor is an important part of laser cutting equipment. It can provide stable power supply to achieve stable work. Many people do not know much about servo motors. This article will help you understand the difference between servo motor vs stepper motor.

What is a fiber laser cutting machine servo motor?

The function of the servo motor is to control the speed uniformly and stably with the change of voltage, and to locate by pulse. When receiving a pulse current, it will rotate the corresponding angle of a pulse to achieve uniqueness.

The servo motor itself has the function of emitting pulse current, rotating an angle will produce a corresponding number of pulses, and the servo motor receives the pulse to form a response, so that the system knows how many pulses are sent to the servo motor and how many pulses are recovered, thus accurately controlling the rotation of the motor.

servo motor vs stepper motor
servo motor vs stepper motor

Servo motor vs stepper motor difference 

Working principle

A stepper motor is an open-loop control element stepper motor device that converts electrical pulse signals into angular displacement or linear displacement. Check out the working principle of a stepper motor.

The servo motor relies on pulses to position and has the function of sending pulses


Stepper motors have advantages in terms of cost performance. To achieve the same function, the price of a servo motor is higher than that of a stepper motor with the same power;

The advantages of high response, high speed and high precision of servo motors determine the high price of the product, which is inevitable.


The stepper system has an inherent resonance point. The SR series stepper driver automatically calculates the resonance point and uses it to adjust the control algorithm to achieve the purpose of suppressing resonance. It greatly improves the stability of the intermediate frequency and enables greater stability at high speeds. Torque output, better high-speed performance.

The servo motor runs smoothly and does not vibrate at low speeds. The AC servo system has a resonance suppression function that can make up for the lack of mechanical rigidity. The system also has a frequency analysis function (FFT) inside the system that can detect the resonance point of the machine to facilitate system adjustment.

Running performance

Stepper motors are generally open-loop controlled. motor;

The servo motor adopts closed-loop control, which is easier to control and there is no out-of-step phenomenon.

Speed and overload capacity

Stepper motors are prone to low-frequency vibration

This phenomenon does not occur with servo motors. Its closed-loop control characteristics determine its excellent performance during high-speed operation.

Fiber laser cutting machine servo motor function

Mechanical factors

Mainly reflected in the design, transmission method, installation, material, mechanical wear and other aspects.

Mechanical internal stress, external force and other factors

Due to differences in mechanical materials and installation, the mechanical internal stress and static friction of each transmission shaft on the equipment will be inconsistent. If one of the two axes participating in trajectory interpolation control has greater internal stress or static friction, it will consume the servo torque to a certain extent, causing the acceleration of this axis to slow down, resulting in deformation of the machining contour. The internal stress problem of the drive shaft can be observed through the waveform curve generated by the servo drive feedback.

External force acting on the shaft. In general plate cutting machines, there is no contact between each axis and the workpiece, and the external force that may be received is limited. For pipe cutting machines, the pipe feeding axis will participate in interpolation during cutting, while the other axis is generally non-contact. Due to the influence of the clamp, the pipe will produce a reverse force on the pipe feeding axis. The force conditions of the two axes participating in the interpolation control are inconsistent, and the cutting effect will definitely be affected.

Mechanical resonance

The greater impact of mechanical resonance problems on servo is that it cannot continue to improve the responsiveness of the servo motor, causing the overall equipment to run in a relatively low response state.

CNC system factors

The debugging effect of the servo is not obvious, and the control system needs to be adjusted. When processing fiber laser cutting machines, the linear speed is usually relatively constant, and the speed is the same on both straight lines and curves.

Mechanical jitter

Mechanical jitter is essentially a problem of the natural frequency of the machine. It usually occurs in single-end fixed cantilever structures, especially during the acceleration and deceleration stages. Low-frequency jitter will have a large wave-like shape in the workpiece, and higher-frequency jitter will have a jagged shape.

The role of the servo motor is still very important and we must not ignore it. Therefore, it is still recommended that everyone choose a guaranteed merchant when purchasing fiber laser cutting!

There are big differences between stepper motors and servo motors in terms of working principle, overload capacity, operating performance and cost. However, both have their own advantages. If users want to choose between them, they need to combine their actual needs and application scenarios.

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